Deep brain stimulation therapy is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the symptoms of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. DBS is also being explored as a treatment for several other disorders, including Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, and neuropathic pain. During the DBS implantation surgery, an electrode is placed in the brain to regulate abnormal electrical activity. Our neurophysiologists assist the surgeon by performing “DBS mapping” to identify the best location to place the electrode. The procedure is done while you are awake. We monitor the activity of the brain cells, and conduct test stimulation prior to the placement of the permanent electrode. With DBS mapping, your surgeon is able to find the spot that will be most effective at reducing your symptoms while limiting potential side effects.

Sam has more than 25 years of experience practicing medicine and holds active board certifications in cardiothoracic surgery, congenital cardiac surgery, and surgery. He has extensive experience with healthcare process efficiency, clinical quality policies and procedures, patient safety, healthcare data management, and medical leadership. Sam received his undergraduate degree from the University of Pennsylvania and received an MBA from Fordham University. He earned his MD degree at The State University of New York at Stony Brook, received postdoctoral training at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York, and gained additional training at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Sam is the author of more than 100 publications and presentations.